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Turbocharging - The supply of compressed air to the intake manifold is the most efficient way to increase the engine power, since part of the energy that is emitted during the exhaust system is used to spin turbocharger. Fuel consumption is lower compared to the same power but with a higher volume of a simple engine. Smaller capacity results lower friction and heat losses.
At the other end of the same shaft is a compressor wheel which is spun by exhaust gases. This when compresses air taken from the environment. Air passes through the compressor housing directly to the intake manifold or is cooled through coolant (intercooler). Lower incoming air temperature and higher density reduces burning temperature, nitrogen oxide formation, tendency for detonation, carbon dioxide emissions in diesel and lower fuel consumption.
If the mixture of fuel, compressed and cooled air meets all the required parameters - the engine will work perfectly and the engine power will increase significantly at certain engine speeds.
TURBOCHARGERS: TECHNOLOGY ADVANTAGES
Due to unique technology, the power-to-weight ratio (in kg / kW) of turbocharged engines is significantly lower compared to naturally aspirated (N/A) engines. Moreover, turbocharged engines are smaller than N/A engines of the same power.
The torque characteristics of the turbocharged engine are also more favorable. Due to the higher torque growth power remains even when RPM are dropping at low speeds. Driving in a mountainous area requires less gear shifting and the car does not lose speed.
Turbocharged engines are quieter than N/A, turbines work as an additional silencers.
Turbocharged engines can work with a higher air-fuel ratio. Today, this is the basis for the construction of economical and low-emission engines.
Turbocharged engines are used wherever fuel economy is required. The higher the engine, the more relevant the low fuel consumption. Turbochargers are mounted in to practically all trucks, locomotives and ships.
Modern turbodiesel engines for passenger cars do not descend on petrol, and sometimes overcome them, have better torque characteristics, emit less pollutants, and consume much less fuel. Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) compared to petrol with the same power are about 25% lower, CO, CH emissions - as a petrol with 3 component catalytic converter.
Another 15% of fuel economy and a decrease of CO2 emissions are planned to be achieved by using turbocharged direct injection diesel engines and intercoolers. In practice, this would be a fuel consumption of 2 to 5 l/100km, depending on the weight of the car.
The main disadvantages of a turbocharged engine are delayed turbine reaction to the throttle (turbo lag), also due to rotor inertia at low engine speeds low boost pressure appears. Manufacturers are trying to reduce these disadvantages by producing smallest and faster turbochargers, pressure regulators and the variable geometry turbines. The current turbocharger for passenger cars and minivans has a rev range of 150,000 to 280,000 rpm, and boost pressure of 2.8 bar and more.